You can learn about both the theory and practice in this 48MB PDF titled Geospatial Engineering. It's ATP 3-34.80, dated June 23, 2014.
From the introduction:
Geospatial engineers aid in the analysis of physical and cultural terrain and other activities that significantly contribute to anticipating, estimating, and warning of possible future events. Providing geospatial information that is timely, accurate, and relevant is a critical enabler throughout the operations process for developing shared situational awareness, improving the understanding of capabilities and limitations for friendly forces and the adversary, and highlighting other conditions of the operational environment that are required for mission command. Today, geospatial engineering leverages finer temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions from additional sensors and platforms that allow increased volumes and more complex data. New methods and technologies provide additional utility and capability and the ability to work effectively and efficiently within a broad pool of partners and allies.
There are four chapters (and some Appendices):
Chapter 1, Support to Unified Land Operations, describes the role of geospatial engineering in supporting unified land operations. It also describes the critical roles that geospatial engineering units and staffs have in providing geospatial engineering in support of Army operations.
Chapter 2, Army Geospatial Enterprise, focuses on defining the Army Geospatial Enterprise (AGE) and SSGF.
Chapter 3, Roles and Responsibilities, discusses the geospatial engineering capabilities that reside within the echelons above brigade down to the brigade combat team (BCT).
Chapter 4, Geospatial Support Integration, focuses on how to integrate geospatial engineering capabilities into the Army operations process.